VoIP and Fax (Fax Over Internet Protocol) Glossary
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Fax glossary; Facsimile terms; VoIP glossary; Fax definitions; Attenuation; VoIP; FoIP
This glossary contains a collection of terms used in telephony and phone services implemented by digital Internet service providers. This glossary may prove useful when trying to interpret these words in certain KnowledgeBase articles.
Term Definition ATA - Analog Telephone adapter (other terms may include filter, DAC converter, among others) A device that coverts analog voice signals to digital signals which can then be transmitted over the Internet.
Reduction in the strength of the signal which lends itself to lower signal-to-noise ratio. This can be a consequence of long signal paths, poorly insulated lines, poor quality lines, congestion or oversaturation of the phone or Internet service provider lines. Bandwidth Usually measured in 1000 bits per second (kbps), it is the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period. Baud One signaling element per second; not to be confused with bits per second. BYOD - Bring Your Own Device Some VoIP providers allow a person to supply their own equipment or ATA.
Normally used to reference to converting analog signals to digital or digital signals to analog. It can be used in conjunction with compression software to compress
and decompress these signals to varying degrees.
CPE - Customer Premises Equipment Equipment at the customers location that converts the digital signal back to voice. DID - Direct Inward Dialing A service that allows an enterprise to allocate individual phone numbers to each person within its PBX system. DSL - Digital Subscriber Line Phone technology that allows a broadband Internet digital connection to be carried over existing copper phone lines,
while still allowing the phone service to carry analog signals over the same line.
DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-frequency)
- Also known as Touchtone, it is the signal generated when you press a telephone's touch keys that is sent to the telephone company.
- These signals are actually two tones of a specific frequency designed so that a voice cannot duplicate them.
- The ability for interactive telephone menus to work correctly across different networks and phone systems is due to the fact that DTMF tones are standardized and are uniquely linked to a number (and # or *) on the telephone keypad.
ECM (Error Correction Mode)
ECM allows for the receiving fax machine to request retransmission for a page where some errors were detected in the frames of that page. Enabling ECM increases the probability of a successful fax transmission.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) An ISP is responsible for the connection and quality of network and digital phone service. IAD (Integrated Access Device) Equipment at the customers location that is used to convert digital signals back to voice. Usually used in association with a DSL connection.
As data load increases and decreases, routers on the Internet can create slightly different times that individual packets take to travel from one point to another point. This variation in time is known as jitter. Latency
The time it takes for a packet to reach its destination.
Higher delay times can be an issue, especially for VoIP, where voice delay can be recognized with latency higher than 150 milliseconds.
NOTE: Any latency higher than 500 milliseconds may be problematic for faxing.
LERG (Local Exchange Routing Guide)
- A database of the first 6 digits of a telephone number
- Provides information for routing telephone calls over the Public Switching Telephone Network
- Enables identification of what local company the number belongs to
Line Echo Echo that is common in the PSTN network and is created as a result of voice traveling over hybrids or two-wire to four-wire conversions. MTA (Multimedia Terminal Adapter) A device that connects a traditional telephone to a cable line, converting analog voice to digital signals.
PBX (Public Branch Exchange)
A telephone switching-system that allows outside phone lines from a telecommunications provider to connect to extensions within the office or building.
Features may include:
- Call forwarding
- Voice mail
POTS (Plain Old Telephone System) See PSTN. This is your typical, old fashioned single phone line that has been in existence for many years. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Service) The combination of local, long-distance and international carriers that make up the worldwide telephone network. RJ-11 A four or six-wire connector used to connect telephone equipment.
An eight-wire connector used to connect Ethernet connections in computers, routers, switches, and other computer peripherals. This is slightly larger than a telephone connector. T38 A recognized standard for sending fax transmissions over an IP network in real-time mode. Messages are sent as UDP or TCP/IP packets. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) This is a communications protocol that does not provide sequencing of the packets.
The application must be able to make sure that the entire message has arrived and is in the right order.
VAD (Voice Activation Detection)
- Software that suppresses silence by detecting the absence of audio for a specified amount of time to use.
- Can also be used to forward idle noise or comfort noise to a remote IP telephone or IAD, thereby giving the illusion of a constant transmission stream during silence.
- Conserves bandwidth, as one-half of many conversations can actually be made up of silence.
- Listeners will not think the line has gone dead, but this can have a negative impact on fax transmission.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) The transmission of voice over the Internet as digital packets rather than PSTN or POTS. FoIP (Fax over Internet Protocol) The transmission of fax data over the Internet as digital packets rather than PSTN or POTS.
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